Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

In general, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) can be divided into three main syndromes abnormal exercise-induced cardiovascular performance, orthostatic hypotension, and cardiac denervation syndrome. Abnormal Cardiovascular Exercise Performance Advanced CAN may result in reduced cardiovascular performance during exercise, which may or may not be noticed by the patient. The cardiovascular response to exercise is impaired in CAN subjects (120) in the absence of coronary artery disease or...

Hla Genes And

Many factors play a role in determining the risk of progression to T1DM. These include family history of diabetes, genotype e.g., HLA haplotype , age, environmental factors, the residual insulin secretory capacity, the presence of cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies ICAs , and antibodies to characterized islet autoantigens 65,66 . The presence or absence of the others may modify the prognostic significance of any of these risk factors 67 . T1DM and corresponding animal models of the disease such...

IDDM

Provided by studies showing a significantly increased risk for first-degree relatives of affected individuals 18,19 . In addition, twin studies have revealed stronger disease concordance rates among monozygotic than dizygotic twins, although rates among monozygotic twins are less than 50 20 . In terms of specific genetic markers, type 1 diabetes is determined primarily by genes in the HLA region of chromosome 6. However, recent genome screens have identified at least 15 additional loci that may...