Adjuvant Analgesics

Adjunctive agents are needed because pain is not always well controlled with just standard therapies, especially in the opioid tolerant, and analgesia can be improved by using a number of different agents together (i.e., multimodal analgesia). Adjuncts can also provide opioid sparing effects to help reduce side effects and reverse or prevent opioid tolerance. They are also used to treat or prevent neuropathic symptoms (e.g., hyperalgesia or allodynia) and potentially the development of chronic...

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semi-synthetic psychedelic drug, derived from morning glory seeds and ergot, a rye fungus. It is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Its unusual psychological effects such as visuals of colored patterns behind the eyes, a sense of time distortion, and crawling geometric patterns has made it one of the most widely known psychedelic drugs. After its discovery in 1938 while investigating ergot compounds, LSD was used experimentally to treat neuroses, narcotic...

Opioids

Consensus guidelines and systematic reviews consistently indicate that antidepressant agent and anticonvulsants represent the first-line treatments in the management of neuropathic pain (Argoff et al. 2006, Gilron et al. 2006, Finnerup et al. 2005). Unfortunately, these drugs provide effective analgesia in less than half of this patient population (Sindrup and Jensen 1999). There has been considerable controversy surrounding the use of opioid analgesics for chronic non-malignant pain in general...

St Johns Wort

John's wort is used to treat anxiety, mild-to-moderate depression, and sleep-related disorders (Hughes et al. 2004, Kaye et al. 2000). Other uses have included treatment of cancer, fibrositis, headache, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sciatica (Jellin et al. 2002). Active compounds in the agent include the naphthodihydrodianthrones, hypericin, and pseudohy-pericin, the flavonoids, quercitin, rutin, and hypericin, and the xanthones (Hughes et al. 2004, Leak 1999). It is thought that...

Ginger

Ginger has been used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, motion sickness, and vertigo (Kaye et al. 2000). A study of the effects of ginger on subjects with vertigo found that no subjects experienced nausea after caloric stimulation of the vestibular system, in contrast to those treated with placebo (Grontved and Hentzer 1986). It is postulated that ginger may be superior to dimenhydrinate in decreasing motion sickness (Holtmann et al. 1989). For vomiting episodes, this herbal has also been...