Tacrine

AKA Cognex, tacrine hydrochloride, Tetrahydroaminoacridine, THA. Effects Has a good track record for improving memory in Alzheimer's patients, especially when taken with deprenyl and lecithin, though it does not help other damage caused by this disease. It is most effective for those whose memory problems are the result of too little acetylcholine, as it is the only drug proven to raise levels of acetylcholine in the brain. Precautions It is not taken by those allergic or sensitive to Tacrine...

Estrogen

One of the six steroid hormones in the body. Food Sources Alfalfa sprouts, chickpeas, flaxseed, rye, soybeans, yams. Certain herbs such as blue cohosh, dong quai, hops, and licorice have estrogen-like properties, but may not have the same effects. Effects Can improve the mood of postmenopausal women, protect against osteoporosis (bone loss), and maintain the health of the heart. It may also relieve or even prevent the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in postmenopausal women, particularly those...

Nt7TMG

AKA Made shaunda, Myristica fragrans. Called a pseudohallucinogen because its primary effect is delirium, one aspect of which is a form of hallucination. It contains the drug myristicin, which can be converted by the body into an amphetamine-like psychedelic. Effects The high can range from mild euphoria to full-blown delirium that lasts four to twelve hours. Precautions It should be avoided by anyone with liver problems. Common side effects include severe nausea and diarrhea. Overdose symptoms...

Methylphenidate

A central nervous system stimulant used to treat attention deficit disorder in children, narcolepsy and mild depression in the elderly, plus other psychological, educational, and social disorders. Effects According to Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw, it has been shown to improve learning, memory, and information processing by releasing norepi-nephrine in the brain. Precautions Continued or excessive use can lead to dependence or addiction, and possibly severe psychotic episodes. It should be used...

Vitamin A Betacarotene Carotenoids

AKA Aeon, Afaxin, Alphalin, Aquasol A, carotene, Dispatabs, pro-vitamin A, retinol, retin A, Sust-A, vitamin A acetate, vitamin A acid, vitamin A palmitate. Beta carotene (sometimes called carotene or pro-vitamin A) is found almost exclusively in plant foods and is a precursor to vitamin A, which, after it is converted by the body, works as an antioxidant (prevents vitamin C from oxidizing). Carotenoids, of which there are over 600, are also found in plant foods, but are not as plentiful or...

RlSperidone

A drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Effects It is believed to improve short-term memory by about 20 percent in patients taking the drug. Precautions Its memory-enhancing effects on non-schizophrenics are still unknown. It should not be taken by those who are allergic to it. It may be dangerous for individuals with liver or kidney disease, allergies to other medications, or a history of seizures. A small percentage of Caucasians and Asians are poor metabolizers...

VlNCAMINE

Made from an extract of the periwinkle plant. Effects A vasodilator (improves blood flow to the brain and enhances the brain's utilization of oxygen). Users claim it improves memory and cognition, but sufficient scientific research is lacking for normal, healthy people. Precautions It may cause a reduction in white corpuscles and a degeneration of muscle tissue. In rare cases, it causes gastrointestinal problems. Dosage 60 mg day in two divided doses. A close relative of vincamine believed to...

Bht

A food preservative added to prevent oxidation and reduce rancidity in oil-containing foods. Effects An anti-oxidant. According to Jane Brody, BHT has been proven to protect the body against certain carcinogens, to inactive some viruses, and provide some protection against carbon tetrachloride poisoning. According to Pearson and Shaw, it can also extend life and be used as a treatment for herpes. Precautions The few studies conducted have yielded contradictory results or have had flaws. It is...

Ephedra And Mahuang

AKA Dymetadrine 25, Ephedra gerardiana (Pakistani ephedra), Ephedra nevadensis (American ephedra, Brigham Young weed, cowboy tea, desert herb, Mormon tea, squaw tea, teamster's tea, whorehouse tea), Ephedra sinica (Chinese ephedra, ma-huang), epitonin. Effects Chinese and Pakistani ephedra contain ephedrine, a strong central nervous system stimulant.'American ephedra contains norpseudoephedrine, which may be even more powerful. It increases adrenaline production, heart rate, and blood pressure....

Selegiline

AKA Deprenyl, Eldepryl, Jumex, Jumexal, Juprenil, L-deprenyl, Mover-gan, Procythol, SD Deprenyl, selegiline hydrochloride. A standard prescription drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in combination with levodopa and Car-bidopa, and mental depression when taken by itself. The molecular structure is similar to phenylethylamine (PEA), which exists in both plants and animals (and is the so-called love chemical in chocolate), and also resembles such compounds as amphetamine,...

Yohimbe And Yohimbine

AKA Actibine, Aphrodyne, Baron-X, Corynanthe yohimbe, Dayto Himbin, lizard tail, Pausinystalia yohimbe, Prohim, Thybine, yerba del pasmo, yerba mansa, Yocon, Yohimar, yohimbine hydrochloride, Yohimex, Yoman, Yovital. Effects Yohimbe is said to produce a tingling feeling along the spine, followed by a mild, pleasant, and euphoric high lasting four to six hours. In high enough doses, it can produce mild hallucinogenic-like effects. It contains a number of psychoactive alkaloids, including...

Mandrake

AKA Apples of the fool, apples of the genie, devil's testicle, European mandrake, love apple, mandragon, mandragora, Mandragora officinarum, may apple, Satan's apple, Satan's testicles. Of all the sedating-tranquilizing-psychotropic plants known, writes William Emboden, the mandrake has the most extensive and bizarre history. This member of the nightshade family has been used as a painkiller, sedative, aphrodisiac, trance mediator, and poison. According to the ancient doctrine of signatures,...

Ginger

AKA African ginger, Asarum canadense, black ginger, Canada snake-root, gan Jiang, Indian ginger, race ginger, wild ginger, Zingiberis officianalis, Zingiber officinale. Effects Has been used to treat anxiety and depression. A stimulant, it is said to benefit the stomach, intestines, and circulation, and has been used to treat cramps, indigestion, gas, motion sickness, and nausea. It is said to help cleanse the body through sweating, to stimulate the appetite, and to relieve the symptoms of...

Vitamin B3

AKA Niacin, niacinamide, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide. L-tryptophan can be converted by the body into B-3, though it takes 60 parts tryptophan to make one part niacin, and a person who is deficient in B-l, B-2, and B-6 may not be able to produce niacin in this manner. Food Sources Avocados, brewer's yeast, dates, eggs, figs, fish, lima beans, liver, lean meat, milk, roasted peanuts, poultry (white meat), prunes, wheat germ, whole wheat products. Effects Improves memory and other mental...

Donepezil

Effects Increases the availability of acetylcholine in the brain, improving memory in Alzheimer's patients for a short period of time. An immune-suppressing drug used to prevent transplanted organs from being rejected. Effects It has been found to cause neurons to grow new fibers that connect to other brain cells, which could possibly overcome brain damage caused by strokes, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Precautions It should not be taken by transplant patients who are sensitive...

Khat

AKA Catha edulis, chat, kat, miraa, qat, quat, tchat, tschat. Effects An Ethiopian shrub that is said to produce bliss, clarity of thought, euphoria, excessive energy, and hallucinations because of its amphetamine-like alkaloids cathine, cathidine, cathinine, norpseudoephedrine, and ephedrine, among others. It also contains high levels of vitamin C. Precautions Though it is not believed to be physically addictive, regular users do develop a dependence. Instead of the effects mentioned above,...

Morning Glory

AKA Ipomoea purpurea, Ipomoea violacea (badoh negro seeds, Ipomoea tricolor, tlitliltzin), Mexican morning glory, piule, Turbina corymbosa (coaxhuitl, Ipomoea sidaefolia, ololiuqui, Rivea corymbosa). Contains a chemical called ergine (d-lysergic acid diethylamide), the closest substance to LSD found in nature. Morning glory actually refers to two distinct species which, due to the uncertainties regarding this family, have other botanical names (see above). Although other members of the morning...

Phenytoin

AKA Dilantin (extended action), Diphenylan (prompt acting), Diphenylhydantoin (DPH), Ditan (prompt acting), Ethotoin, Mephenytoin, Mesantoin, Peganone, Phenytex, PHT. The most commonly prescribed drug for epilepsy, it has been the subject of at least 8000 papers. The exact mechanism by which it works is still not understood, but it is believed to influence the electromagnetic fields, polarizing the electrically charged elements of the cells. Effects Though it is mainly used as a treatment for...

Ghb

AKA Alcover, 4-hydroxybutyrate, gamma hydrate, gamma-hydroxy-butyrate, gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium, Gamma OH, Liquid Ecstasy, Liquid X, sodium oxybate, sodium oxybutyrate, Somatomax PM. A natural component of every cell in the body, GHB is found in the greatest concentrations in the kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles, brown fat, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. It is a precursor to the neurotransmitter GAB A, and may be a neurotransmitter itself. Unlke GABA, it can cross the blood brain barrier....

Ldopa

AKA Larodopa, levodopa, Lopar, L-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine. A precursor of the neurotransmit-ter dopamine, L-dopa is an amino acid found naturally in the body, even though it is classified as a prescription drug. It is metabolized from tyrosine, which in turn is converted from phenylalanine. It is used to treat Parkinson's disease, restless leg syndrome, and the pain resulting from herpes zoster (shingles). Effects It may reverse or even prevent the deterioration of the body generally...

Reishi

AKA Ganoderma, Ganoderma lucidum, ling-chih-tsao, ling-zhi, wu-ling-chih. Reishi is a mushroom that grows in the mountains of Asia. Effects An adaptogen that boosts the immune system, balances the bodily systems, counteracts stress, and improves mental functioning. It may reduce symptoms of altitude sickness by thinning the blood. It has been used to treat viral hepatitis, may protect the liver from various toxins, and may be useful in treating chronic bronchitis, peptic ulcer disease,...

Betel

AKA Areca catechu, areca nut, betel nut, ping lang, supari. A favorite stimulant for thousands of years, it is still one of the most widely used drugs in the world, as popular in Asia as tobacco is in the West. Effects The stimulant is the alkaloid arecoline, which increases energy, elevates mood, and acts as an aphrodisiac, though this last effect may just may be an indirect result of the first two. The arecoline that is swallowed can rid the body of some intestinal parasites. Precautions...

Ayahuasca And Caapi

AKA Banisteriopsis caapi (caapi, oco-yaje, yage, yaje, yaje-uco), Banisteriopsis inebrians, Banisteriopsis martiniana, Banisteriopsis muricata (mii, sacha ayahuasca), Banisteriopsis quitensis, bejuco de oro, cadana, dapa, Diplopterys cabrerana (Banisteriopsis rusbyana, chagropanga, chacruna), kahi, mihi, natema, pilde, pinde, tiger drug, yake. Ayahuasca and caapi are two species (of approximately 100) of a South American liana, or jungle vine. Effects Causes a pleasurable intoxication and...

Kava And Kawain

AKA Ava, awa, kasa, kava kava, Kavaform, Kaviase, kawa, kawa kawa, keu, Laitan, lewena, Piper methysticum, Piper wichmannii, sakau, seka, waka, wati, yagona, yaqona. A Polynesian herb used by native peoples to make an alcoholic drink. The practice of preparing the root and stem for the drink by having a designated person chew on them is no longer done because of health risks. Kava contains several active compounds called kavalactones, also known as kava alphapyrones or kavapyrones, which...

Butchers Broom

AKA Box holly, knee holly, Ruscus aculeatus, sweet broom. Butcher's Broom is an evergreen shrub in the lily family that is closely related to asparagus. Effects Said to increase blood flow to the brain. It may relieve inflammation and prove beneficial to the bladder and kidneys. It has been used to treat hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and other circulatory problems, as well as carpal tunnel syndrome, edema, Meniere's disease, obesity, Raynaud's syndrome, thrombophlebitis, and vertigo. Works...

Dmt And Related Tryptamines

AKA DMT Anadenanthera colubrina, Anadenanthera peregrina, Anadenanthera rigida, angico, businessman's trip, cebil, cohoba, dimethyltryptamine, hisioma, huilca, niopo, N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine, one-hit grass, parica, Pip-tadenia peregrina, sebil, vilca, yopo, yupa. AKA AMT Alpha-methyltrypta-mine, IT-290. AKA DET N,N-diethyltrypta-mine, T-9. AKA DIT N,N-diisopropyl-tryptamine. AKA 5-MeO-DMT 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. AKA 5-MeO-MMT 5-methoxy-N-monomethyltryptamine. AKA 5-OH-DMT Bufotenine,...

Centrophenoxine

AKA Brenal, Cellative, Clocete, 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid 2-dimethy-laminoethyl ester, Helfergen, Lucidril, meclofenoxate, Marucotol, Methoxynal, Proserout. It is very similar structurally to the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the bloodstream, it breaks down into DMAE and supplies the same basic building blocks as DMAE for manufacturing acetylcholine and speeding nerve transmissions across synapses. Effects It is believed to improve memory, increase mental alertness, improve...

Rauwolfia

AKA Indian snakeroot, Rauwolfia serpentaria, Rauwolfia serpentina, ser-pentwood. Effects Dilates the blood vessels and contains the alkaloid reserpine, which has a tranquilizing effect. It is used to treat insomnia and Raynaud's disease. Though it contains some yohimbine, it should not be considered a substitute for yohimbe. Precautions It should not be taken by anyone who suffers from an allergy to rauwolfia alkaloids, depression, peptic ulcers, or ulcerative colitis. Those who suffer from...