An Applied Example Artificial Gravity

As described above motor imagery can be used to improve athletic ability such as the timing and execution of a golf swing (Ross et al., 2003). Another application comes from a unique area adaptation to artificial gravity (AG), which has been proposed as a potential countermeasure to the debilitating effects of long-duration space flight (Young, 1999). This artificial form of gravity is produced by 'standing' at the rim of a rotating object and comes in two basic varieties 1) continuous...

Distinguishing VRIs from 0G Inversion Illusions

Prior to the first detailed descriptions provided by Skylab and Spacelab astronauts, VRIs were not distinguished from inversion illusions in the scientific literature. For example, Graybiel and Kellogg (1967) reviewed Titov's early account of 0-G inversion illusion after orbital insertion (Sect. 2.2) but assumed Titov's inversion sensation corresponded to the VRI produced by slowly rolling inverted in the cabin of an aircraft in parabolic flight. Prior to Skylab, crew accounts in the US and...

Eva Disorientation And Height Vertigo

Shuttle, Mir and ISS crewmembers have also sometimes experienced spatial disorientation episodes while performing spacewalks (Extra Vehicular Activity, EVA). EVA astronauts typically move about using handrails, trailing a backup safety tether. They stabilize their body with one hand while working with the other, or install foot restraints and use both hands. Since the body tends to drift while working, crews must remain conscious of their orientation, and be careful not to inadvertently bump...

Visual Reorientation Illusions

When an astronaut floats within the cabin of an orbiting spacecraft, the notion of a gravitational down is meaningless. Crew typically speak of the visual down reference defined by the orientation of surrounding wall, ceiling and floor surfaces, typically comprised of labeled racks and panels, readily recognizable from prior experience in ground simulators. In order to know which way to look or reach for remembered objects, or to move about in the cabin, astronauts must visually recognize...