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*Km (Michaelis constant) represents the concentration of ethanol for which the enzyme is activated at 50 of its biggest potential. Vmax represents the maximum speed of the enzyme activity, by enzyme mol and minute. The allozymes exhibit distinct maximal activities due to single amino acid exchanges at different sites in the coenzyme-binding domain. Six ADH genes have been characterized (Pastino et al., 2000). Among them, only the ADH2 and ADH3 isoenzyme are polymorphic (table I). Among the ADH2...

Candidate Genes

Polymorphisms at some genes have been studied to date, to test their association with antidepressant response. The choice of candidate genes has taken into account the possible involvement of each gene in the pathophysiology of the disease and in the mechanism of action of the analysed drugs. The most commonly worldwide used antidepressant drugs are Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors The Tryptophan Hydroxylase (TPH) gene, which codes for the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis,...

Future Directions

To date, neuropsychopharmacogenetics has been applied to the study of several phenotypes related to neuropsychopharmacologic therapy. Examples include serotonin receptor genes and therapeutic response to clozapine in psychosis (Arranz et al., 1998 Masellis et al., 1998 Masellis et al., 2001 Masellis et al., 1995) the serotonin transporter gene and antidepressant treatment response in depression (Smeraldi et al., 1998) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (Billett et al., 1997) and dopamine...

Neuropsychopharmacogenetics Applied To Adhd

Why examine the pharmacogenetics of response and ADRs to psycho-stimulant therapy First, there is documented evidence of inter-individual variation in response to psychostimulants. There is an average response rate of about 75 to a given psychostimulant, as identified across several controlled outpatient trials (Solanto, 1998). In a key study conducted at the NIMH, Elia et al. (1991) demonstrated that approximately 25 of individuals have a clinically meaningful response to either...

Httlpr

Only H2 groups, -1018G A corresponding on the allelic to 20 level The majority of association studies regarding Clozapine induced agranulozytosis have been investigating the HLA system. The interpretation of the results is very problematic due to several methodological shortcomings. One of those is ethnic background several of the studies are investigating jewish, mostly Ashkenazi patients, partially discriminating results into jewish non-jewish subgroups partly not...

Phobias

Phobias occur in several forms and specific phobias are linked to a particular object or situation. Social phobia as an example is an intense fear of becoming humiliated in a social setting or being painfully embarrassed in front of other people. Lifetime prevalence of social phobia was 9.5 in females and 4.9 in males, with about one-third being classified as individuals with generalized social phobia. Little is known about the psychobiology and heritability of specific phobias, although twin...

Cyp3a4

Bromperidol, Clozapine, Haloperidol, Olanzapine, Perazine, Perphenazine, Quetiapine, Risperidone, Ziprasidone, Zotepine adapted from Prior et al. 1999 , Scordo and Spina 2002 , Dahl 2002 adapted from Prior et al. 1999 , Scordo and Spina 2002 , Dahl 2002 Traditionally low and high metabolizing phenotypes have been defined by probe reactions like the debrisoquine sparteine reaction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6, more recently it has become the practice to identify specific alleles by...

Genetic Aspects Of Monoamine Metabolism And Neuropsychiatry Diseases

The role of the MA systems in regulating several biological processes that are disrupted in mental diseases suggests that the imbalance in MA neurotransmission may play a substantial role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases Grace, 1991 Mallet, 1996 Dreher amp Burnod, 2002 . The relative abundance and activity of the MA varies in different species and in different cell groups as well as interindividually and between normal and pathological states, albeit it is unclear to what...