Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom Cimicifuga dahurica Turcz Maxim or Cimicifuga foetida L Fam Ranunculaceae

SHENG MA

Cimicifuga Heracleifolia

Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom. (Fam. Ranunculaceae)

I. Root and rhizome; 2. Leaf; 3. Branch with leaves; 4. Branch with flowers;

5. Flower; 6. Stamen; 7. Fruit; 8. Cross-section of fruit english name cassia twig, cinnamon twig part used tender twig

Ramulus Cinnamomi is produced chiefly in Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces in China. Collected in spring and summer, the twig is dried, sliced, and used unprepared.

flavor, properties, and channel tropism

Pungent and sweet in flavor, warm in property, acts on the Heart, Lung, and Bladder channels.

functions

Induces diaphoresis to dispel pathogenic factors from the exterior of the body, warms the channels to relieve pain, stimulates menstruation, reinforces Yang to promote the flow of Qi.

clinical use and major combinations

For headache, fever, and aversion to cold due to Wind Cold, it is used with Radix Paeoniae Alba (Bai Shao) in "The Cinnamon Twig Decoction" (Gui Zhi Tang). It is also used with Herba Ephedrae (Ma Huang) in mixtures like "The Ephedrae Decoction" (Ma Huang Tang).

For arthralgia due to Wind Cold Dampness with pain in the shoulder, back, limbs, and joints.

For Yang Stagnation and retention of water in the body due to Deficiency of the Heart Yang and Spleen Yang, which presents as a cold feeling in the back, hypochondriac distension, cough, dyspnea, hiccups, vertigo, difficulty in urination, and edema, it is used with Sclerotium Poriae Cocos (Fu Ling), Sclerotium Polypori Umbellati (Zhu Ling), and Rhizoma Alismatis (Ze Xie) in "Wu Ling Powder" (Wu Ling San).

For chest pain due to Qi obstruction, it is used with Fructus Trichosanthis (Gua Lou), Bulbus Allii Macrostemi (Xie Bai), and Fructus Aurantii Imma-turus (Zhi Shi).

For palpitations or slow pulse with irregular intervals, it is used with honey-processed licorice root (Gan Cao), ginseng (Ren Shen), and Colla Corii Asini (A Jiao) in "The Processed Licorice Decoction" (Zhi Gan Cao Tang).

For irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and masses in the abdomen caused by Cold in the Blood, it is used with herbs that promote the circulation of Blood and restore regular menstrual flow, such as Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui), Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong), Cortex Moutan (Mu Dan Pi), and Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) in "The Warming Channels Decoction" (Wen Jing Tang) or "The Cinnamon Twig and Sclerotium Poriae Cocos Pill" (Gu Zhi Fu Ling Wan).

dosage and administration

3 —io g, decocted in water for internal use.

precautions

1. Contraindicated in warm febrile diseases and in diseases due to Yin Deficiency.

2. Use cautiously in patients with menorrhagia and in pregnant women.

GUI ZHI

Cimicifuga Foetida

Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Fam. Lauraceae) I. Branch with fruit; 2. Cross-section of flower; 3—4. Stamen; 5. Degenerated stamen; 6. Pistil; 7. Bark english name cassia bark part used dried stem bark

Cortex Cinnamomi is produced chiefly in the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan. The bark is dried in the shade after being stripped off the tree and scraped off the cork; then it is sliced or ground into powder.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Pungent and sweet in flavor, hot in property, acts on the Kidney, Spleen, Heart, and Liver channels.

functions

Strengthens the Fire of the Vital Gate, expels Pathogenic Cold to relieve pain, warms up and removes obstructions of the channels.

clinical use and major combinations

For syndromes of Kidney Yang Deficiency with aversion to cold, cold limbs, weakness in the loins and knees, impotence, and frequent urination, it is used with Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Zhi Fu Zi), Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Di Huang), and Fructus Corni (Shan Zhu Yu); for syndromes of both Deficient Kidney Yang and Deficient Spleen Yang with gastric and abdominal Cold pain, anorexia, and loose stools, it is used with Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae (Bai Zhu). For joint pain and lower back pain of rheumatic or rheumatoid arthritis due to Cold and Dampness, it is used with Radix Clematidis (Wei Ling Xian), Radix Aris-tolochiae Fangchi (Fang Ji), and Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae (Qin Jiao).

For amenorrhea and menorrhagia due to Stagnation of Qi from Cold or Blood Stasis due to Cold, it is used alone or with other herbs that activate blood circulation to stimulate menstrual discharge, such as Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui) and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong).

For sores, carbuncles, and other skin conditions due to Pathogenic Cold of the Deficiency type in Qi and Blood. For carbuncles that are neither red nor hot with diffused swelling without sign of rupture, it is used with Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Di Huang) and Herba Ephedrae (Ma Huang) in "The Yang-Activating Decoction" (Yang He Tang); for unruptured abscesses and swelling or slow-healing carbuncles and swelling long after rupture, it is used with Radix Astragali Membranaceus (Huang Qi) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui).

Used as an auxiliary herb in prescriptions for tonifying the Qi and Blood, such as "The Decoction of Ten Powerful Tonics" (Shi Quan Da Bu Tang).

dosage and administration

2 — 5 g, decocted after other herbs when prepared for a decoction; I— 2 g, if used as a powder for an oral dose.

precautions

1. Contraindicated for use during pregnancy.

2. Do not use in patients with Yin Deficient Hyperactive Fire.

ROU GUI

Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Fam. Lauraceae) I. Branch with fruit; 2. Cross-section of flower; 3—4. Stamen; 5. Degenerated stamen; 6. Pistil; 7. Bark english name Japanese thistle root part used dried aerial part or root

Herba Cirsii Japonici is produced in every part of China. It is collected in summer and autumn, dried in sunlight, cut into pieces, and used unprepared or stir-baked.

flavor, property, and channel tropism

Sweet and bitter in flavor, cool in property, acts on the Heart and Liver channels.

functions

Arrests bleeding by removing Blood Heat, removes Blood Stasis, and treats carbuncles.

clinical use and major combinations

For bleeding due to Blood Heat, including hemoptysis, epistaxis, metrorrhagia, and hematuria, it is used alone or with Herba Cirsii Segeti (Xiao Ji) and Cacumen Platycladi (Ce Bai Ye).

For boils, sores, and carbuncles, it can be used alone for an oral dose or for external application.

Research shows that it is effective in treating hypertension and hepatitis.

dosage and administration

10—15 g, or 30—60 g fresh herb, decocted in water for an oral dose. Appropriate quantity for external application.

precautions

None noted.

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