Raphael D Rose Autumn E Braddock and Michelle G Craske

Keywords panic disorder, agoraphobia, cognitive-behavioral treatment Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks involving intense fear or discomfort peaking within 10 minutes. Symptoms include, but are not limited to, palpitations, sweating, trembling, sensations of shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea, dizziness, derealiza-tion, numbness, chills, hot flashes, fear of losing control, and fear of dying. The individual is apprehensive about experiencing another...

Exposure

Exposure is generally considered the treatment of choice for anxiety disorders, and is a major component of most empirically supported anxiety treatments. It involves confronting anxiety-provoking stimuli in a controlled way until anxiety is reduced, to end the tendency to avoid anxious feelings or stimuli. In addition, exposure helps clients realize that their anxiety will eventually decrease even without avoidance and that their unrealistic, negative beliefs are not true. Treatment is...

Cbt Interventions For

The term medically unexplained symptoms is a catchall phrase that includes a wide variety of physical complaints. Certain constellations of symptoms have been grouped together and classified as functional syndromes e.g., fibromyalgia . This article focuses on treatment studies of MUS and certain related functional syndromes, including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and non-cardiac chest pain. CBT approaches have been applied to patients with MUS where the presenting complaints include...