Endocrine Diseases

Neurological manifestations often accompany dysfunction of the endocrine glands, particularly the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islet cells, and the adrenal gland. Hypothyroidism causes cretinism in infants, mental retardation and short stature in children. In adults, it can cause ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus, a predominantly sensory polyneuropathy, and muscle weakness, with characteristically delayed relaxation of muscle fibers after elicitation of the deep tendon...

Nonvestibular Vertigo

Dysfunction of the nonvestibular components of the regulatory system for balance can also cause vertigo. Visually induced vertigo occurs, e.g., when an individual looks down from a great height, or when the incoming proprioceptive information is inconsistent with the visual information (polysensory mismatch). The vertigo of seasickness is a type of visually induced vertigo. Impaired proprioception, e. g., in polyneuropathy or posterior column disease, can also cause vertigo. Cervical vertigo is...

Disequilibrium and Vertigo

The vestibular organ (semicircular canals, saccule, and utricle) plays a central role in the regulation of balance. Disturbances of the vestibular apparatus (composed of the vestibular organ, the vestibulocochlear n., and the vestibular nuclei of the brainstem) cause dysequil-ibrium, the main symptom of which is vertigo. It must be emphasized, however, that vestibular disturbances are just one cause of vertigo (see below) and not even the most common one. Regulation of equilibrium. Equilibrium...

Disturbances of Hearing and Balance Vertigo

Lesions of the vestibulocochlear n. can impair hearing, balance, or both. A lesion of its cochlear portion produces sensorineural hearing loss (impairment of sound perception), which must always be differentiated from conductive hearing loss (impairment of sound conduction, usually due to blockage of the external auditory canal by cerumen, or to a disease process in the middle ear). A lesion of the vestibular portion causes disequilibrium and vertigo. Vestibular vertigo usually occurs in a...

Vestibular Vertigo

Cerebellar Dizziness Nausea Exercises

Acute loss of vestibular function is also called vestibular neuritis, acute vestibular neuropathy, or an acute vestibular crisis. It can be produced by a variety of pathogenetic mechanisms, the most common of which is a viral infection. The patient suddenly experiences acute rotatory vertigo with nausea, vomiting, and falling to the side of the diseased vestibular organ. Every movement of the head makes the vertigo worse therefore the patient, noting this, lies perfectly still. Examination...

Neurological Disturbances of Hearing

The differentiation of sensorineural from conductive hearing loss helps determine whether the underlying cause is located in the middle ear or external auditory canal more common sites, conductive hearing loss or in the sensory cells of the inner ear or the neural apparatus of hearing less common sites, sensorineural hearing loss . The method of examination and typical findings are summarized above on p. 22. The diagnosis and treatment of conductive hearing loss and of disorders of the cochlea...